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   About East Java

East Java is one of the Republic of Indonesia's 35 provinces, occupying an area of some 48,000 square kilometres just south of the equator. Including the island of Madura, it accounts for a little more than a third of Java's total land surface and supports a population of almost 33,000,000 inhabitants. To the east, across a narrow strait, lies the island of Bali; to the west are the provinces of Central Java and the Special Region of Yogyakarta.

Anyone who opens a physical map of Java will notice immediately the high, mountainous ridge extending along the entire length of the centre of the island. Some of the highest and most active of these volcanic peaks are to be found in East Java, whose flat, fertile plains are punctuated by no less than six separate ranges, becoming progressively higher towards the east. These mountains are among East Java's principal attractions and some of the more outstanding include the 3,676 metre active cone of Mt Semeru, Java's highest peak; the famous sand sea and steaming crater of Mt Bromo; the sulphureous summit of Mt Welirang, and the strangely beautiful crater lakes of Ijen and Kelud.

Two main waterways, the Brantas and Solo rivers, are lifelines for much of East Java's predominantly agricultural community. The former rises in the highlands to the north west of Malang and follows a circuitous path before dividing into a number of smaller streams to meet the sea at Surabaya. The famous Bengawan Solo, longest river in Java, has its source in the centre of the island and stretches 540 kilometres before joining the coast at Gresik. Other important rivers include the Madiun, Konto, Sampeyan and Grindulu.

Like the landscape, East Java's climate is varied, depending upon altitude. The plains and lower hill regions are hot and humid, making conditions ideal for wet rice cultivation (sawah). Further up in the hills the air becomes quite cool, while in high mountainous areas at night the temperature can drop to near zero. Hill regions are well suited for the cultivation of a large variety of fruits and vegetables, which thrive in the colder climate. Principal crops, aside from rice, include corn, tobacco, sugar cane, coffee, rubber, kapok, cloves, tea, cocoa, peanuts soybeans and cotton. In addition, there are extensive plantations of teak and pine. East Java has a marked wet and dry season, with rain occurring between October and April. The wettest months are December, January and February.

AREA : 47,921 sq. km. Capital : Surabaya. Borders: Java Sea on the north, Indian Ocean on the south, Province of Central Java on the west and Bali Strait on the east. Rivers: There are 30 rivers. The five largest are among others : Brantas, Bengawan Solo, Bedadung, Madiun and Baru. Mountains : Semeru, Argopuro, Bromo, Anjasmoro, Arjuna, Mahameru, Kelud and Merapi. Lakes: Sarangan and Karang Kates. Humidity : 83%. Rainfall : Relatively low, on an average of 2,000 mm per year.

Flora : Teak, “kesambi”, pilang pinus, eucalyptus, mahagony, bulbophyllum orchid, canarium vulgare (kenari), “keben”, candlenut, quinine, sandalwood, “leban”, ”kenanga” (Canagaadorata), “rasamala”, “sonokeling”. Fauna: Java tiger, Bawean tiger, wild pig, wild cat, kancil (Tragulus pygmaeus), wild buffalo, wild boar, wild fowl, grey monkeys, snake and frogs.

35,478,000 (2000). Density: 741 persons per sq. km (2000).

Moslems (96.86%), Protestants (1.42%), Roman Catholics (0.91%), Hindus (0.56%) and Buddhists (0.22%).

Agriculture – Food Crops : Rice, corn, peanut and soybean. Commercial Crops :Coconut, clove, rubber, cacao, tea and coffee. Livestock : Cows, horses, goats, sheep, pigs, rabbit, chickens and ducks. Fishery – Fish Products : Tuna, skipjack tuna, shrimp, anchovy, gouramy, common carp, milk fish and tilapia. Forestry – Forest Products : Rattan, resin, incense, log and ebony. Mining : Petroleum, LNG, coal and tin.

Surabaya Zoo, Tretes and Selecta hill resort, Wendit and Sarangan lakes, Ngliyep and Pasir Putih beaches, Trowulan historical museum, temples of Penataran and Singasari, Ijen crater, Kesodo ceremony of the Tengger people on Mount Bromo, Blauran hunting game park, bull racing (karapan sapi) on Madura Island, Mount Bromo, Empu Tantular museum, Trinil museum and Brawijaya museum.

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